Examination of Factors Affecting Youths’ Entrepreneurial Intention: A Cross-Sectional Study

Muhammad Azrin Nazri, Haleemath Aroosha, Nor Asiah Omar


Abstract: This study aims to examine the predictive effect of enterprise education, perceived social norms, entrepreneurial motivations, perceived structural support and innovativeness on entrepreneurial intention. A total of 150 useable responses were collected among young people living in the capital of Maldives, Male’. A cross-sectional quantitative survey was carried out by using a structured questionnaire. A relevant statistical analytical such as regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses set forth in this study. The descriptive results showed that male respondent is slightly more than female respondent which is consistent with the 2014 census of Maldives showing male population in the country is slightly higher than female. The majority of the respondents participated in this survey are from the age group of 18-22 years old. The main finding of the study showed enterprise education, perceived social norms, entrepreneurial motivations and innovativeness have a positive and significant relationship towards entrepreneurial intention. However, perceived structural support has no significant relationship towards entrepreneurial intention. In this study it was also found that enterprise education was the most significant predictor of entrepreneurial intention followed by entrepreneurial motivation, innovativeness and perceived social norms. This finding makes a considerable contribution to the existing literature on factors influencing entrepreneurial intentions among youth in Maldives. The implication and limitations of the study are also discussed.

Full Text:



Abebe, M. (2012). Social and institutional predictors of entrepreneurial career intention: evidence from Hispanic adults in the U.S. J. Enterprising Culture, 20(01), 1-23.

Almobaireek, W. & Manolova, T. (2012). Who wants to be an entrepreneur? Entrepreneurial intentions among Saudi university students. African Journal of Business Management, 6(11).

Altinay, L., Madanoglu, M., Daniele, R. & Lashley, C. (2012). The influence of family tradition and psychological traits on entrepreneurial intention. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 489-499.

Anees, S. (2014). Maldivian population increases by 1.56 percent. Haveeru. [online] Available at: http://www.haveeru.com.mv/census_2014/57525 [Accessed 9 May 2015].

Baporikar, N. (2014). Youth Entrepreneurship in Indian Scenario. International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management, 5(2), 74-84.

Baumol, W. J. (1990). Entrepreneurship: productive, unproductive and destructive. Journal of Political Economy, 98, 893-921.

Beaugrand, P. (2004). And Schumpeter Said, This is How Thou Shalt Grow: Further Quest for Economic Growth in Poor Countries. IMF Working Papers, 04(40), 1.

Dash, M. & Kaur, K. (2012). Youth entrepreneurship as a way of boosting Indian economic competitiveness. International Review of Management and Marketing, 2(1), 10-21.

Information Management and Business Review (ISSN 2220-3796)

Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 14-24, October 2016

Delanoë, S. (2013). From intention to start-up: The effect of professional support. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 20(2), 383-398.

Dinis, A., do Paço, A., Ferreira, J., Raposo, M. & Gouveia Rodrigues, R. (2013). Psychological characteristics and entrepreneurial intentions among secondary students. Education + Training, 55(8/9), 763-780.

Eijdenberg, E. & Masurel, E. (2013). Entrepreneurial motivation in a least developed country: Push factors and pull factors among MSEs in Uganda. J. Enterprising Culture, 21(01), 19-43.

Engle, R., Schlaegel, C. & Delanoe, S. (2011). The Role of Social Influence, Culture, and Gender on Entrepreneurial Intent. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, [online] 24(4), 471–492. Available at: http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f5ac2e7e-795c-4270-bfe2-c6d72c001c84%40sessionmgr4001&vid=0&hid=4204 [Accessed 12 Nov. 2014].

Engle, R., Dimitriadi, N., Gavidia, J., Schlaegel, C., Delanoe, S., Alvarado, I., He, X., Baume, S. & Wolff, B. (2010). Entrepreneurial Intent: A Twelve Country Evaluation of Ajzen’s Model of Planned Behavior. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 16(1), 35-57.

Frank, A. (2007). Entrepreneurship and enterprise skills: A missing element of planning education? Planning Practice and Research, 22(4), 635-648.

Getset.mv. (2015). getset. [Online]. 2015. Available from: http://getset.mv/en/about.php. [Accessed: 2 October 2015].

Gürol, Y. & Atsan, N. (2006). Entrepreneurial characteristics amongst university students. Education + Training, 48(1), 25-38.

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. (2014). Global Report. [online] Babson College. Available at: http://www.gemconsortium.org/docs/download/3616[Accessed 7 May 2015].

Gurel, E., Altinay, L. & Daniele, R. (2010). Tourism students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(3), 646-669.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E. (2009). Multivariate data analysis, (7th ed.)Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.

Henderson, R. & Robertson, M. (2000). Who wants to be an entrepreneur? Young adult attitudes to entrepreneurship as a career. Career Dev Int, 5(6), 279-287.

Heuer, A. & Kolvereid, L. (2014). Education in entrepreneurship and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Euro J of Training and Dev, 38(6), 506-523.

Ibrahim, A. & Soufani, K. (2002). Entrepreneurship education and training in Canada: a critical assessment. Education + Training, 44(8/9), 421-430.

Keat, O., Selvarajah, C. & Meyer, D. (2011). Inclination towards entrepreneurship among university students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(4).

Koe, W., Sa’ari, J., Majid, I. & Ismail, K. (2012). Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention among Millennial Generation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 197-208.

Krueger, N. (2008). Entrepreneurial Resilience: Real & Perceived Barriers to Implementing Entrepreneurial Intentions. Available at SSRN Journal 1155269.

Levesque, M., Shepherd, D. A. & Douglas, E. J. (2002). Employment or self-employment? A dynamic utility-maximizing model. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(3), 189-210.

Liñán, F., Urbano, D. & Guerrero, M. (2011). Regional variations in entrepreneurial cognitions: Start-up intentions of university students in Spain. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 23(3-4), 187-215.

Luthje, C. & Frankle, N. (2003). The 'making' of an entrepreneur: testing a model of entrepreneurial intent among engineering students at MIT. R&D Management, 33(2), 135-147.

Mitchell, R. K. (2002). Are entrepreneurs born or made? Characteristic V. cognitive theories of new venture creation. Texas Tech University. Available: https://www.ronaldmitchell.org/publications/Mitchell-EIX%20NAT%20V.%20NURT-prepub.pdf

Mitra, J., Abubakar, Y. & Sagagi, M. (2011). Knowledge creation and human capital for development: the role of graduate entrepreneurship. Education + Training, 53(5), 462-479.

Mobaraki, M. H. & Zare, Y. B. (2012). Designing pattern of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intention. Information Management and Business Review, 4(8), 428-433.

Mueller, S. & Thomas, A. (2001). Culture and entrepreneurial potential. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(1), 51-75.

Naish, A. (2014). President Yameen launches MVR200 million ‘Maldives Youth Entrepreneurship Programme’. MINIVAN NEWS. [online] Available at: http://minivannews.com/politics/president-

Information Management and Business Review (ISSN 2220-3796)

Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 14-24, October 2016

yameen-launches-mvr200-million-maldives-youth-entrepreneurship-programme-91106#sthash.qv7w1yC4.dpbs [Accessed 9 May 2015].

National Bureau of Statistics. (2015). Population and housing census 2014. [Online]. Male': Ministry of Finance and Treasury Republic of Maldives. Available from: http://www.planning.gov.mv/census/census%202014/CensusPreliminary/PreliminaryResult-04Mar2015.pdf. [Accessed: 1 October 2015].

Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Praag, C. M. & Cramer, J. S. (2001). The roots of entrepreneurship and labor demand: individual ability and low risk. Economica, 68(269), 45-62.

Quandl, (2015). Maldives - Unemployment Data - Data from Quandl. [online] Available at: https://www.quandl.com/collections/maldives/maldives-unemployment [Accessed 9 May 2015].

Schoof, U. (2006). Stimulating Youth Entrepreneurship: Barriers and incentives to enterprise start-ups by young people. [online] International Labor Organization. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/youthmakingithappen/PDF/WP76-2006-Rev.pdf [Accessed 05 May. 2015].

Schwarz, E., Wdowiak, M., Almerâe•Jarz, D. & Breitenecker, R. (2009). The effects of attitudes and perceived environment conditions on students' entrepreneurial intent. Education + Training, 51(4), 272-291.

Sekaran, U., Robert, Y. C. & Brian, L. D. (2001). Applied Business Research. Australia: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Sekaran, U. & Bougie, R. (2010). Research methods for business. 5th ed. Chichester: Wiley.

Shane, S., Locke, E. A. & Collins, C. J. (2012). Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 257-279.

Solesvik, M. (2013). Entrepreneurial motivations and intentions: investigating the role of education major. Education + Training, 55(3), 253-271.

Solesvik, M., Westhead P. & Matlay, H. (2014). Cultural factors and entrepreneurial intention. Education + Training, 56(8/9), 680 - 696

Noel, T. (1998). Effects of entrepreneurial education on intent to open a business: An exploratory study. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 5, 3-13.

Stewart, W. H., Carland, J. C., Carland, J. W., Watson, W. E. & Sweo, R. (2003). Entrepreneurial dispositions and goal orientations: a comparative exploration of United States and Russian entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 41(1), 27-46.

Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S. & Al-Laham, A. (2007). Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4), 566-591.

Tabachnick, B. & Fidell, L. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. 4th Ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Thompson, E.R. (2009). Individual entrepreneurial intent: construct clarification and development of an internationally reliable metric. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 669-694.

Turker, D. & Sonmez Selcuk, S. (2009). Which factors affect entrepreneurial intention of university students? Jnl Euro Industrial Training, 33(2), 142-159.

Utsch, A. & Rauch, A. (2000). Innovativeness and initiative as mediators between achievement orientation and venture performance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9(1), 45-62.

Vaillant, Y. & Lafuente, E. (2007). Do different institutional frameworks condition the influence of local fear of failure and entrepreneurial examples over entrepreneurial activity? Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 19(4), 313-337.

Villarino, M. (2015). In Maldives, a country-led youth entrepreneurship movement blooms | Devex. [online] Devex.com. Available at: https://www.devex.com/news/in-maldives-a-country-led-youth-entrepreneurship-movement-blooms-85602 [Accessed 9 May 2015].

Wang, C. & Wong, P. (2004). Entrepreneurial interest of university students in Singapore. Technovation, 24(2), 163-172.

Wilson, G. (2007).Knowledge, innovation and re-inventing technical assistance for development. Progress in Development Studies, (7), 183-199.

Wilson, F., Kickul, J. & Marlino, D. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: Implications of entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(3), 387- 406.

World Economic Forum. (2009). Global Education Initiative Annual Report. [online] Available at: http://www.weforum.org/pdf/GEI/GEI_Annual_Report_2009.pdf [Accessed 12 May 2015].


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Information Management and Business Review

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2220-3796