Facebook: The Holy Grail of Relationship Marketing?

Hilda Bongazana Dondolo


Relationship marketing has been a focus of online studies for a number of years. These studies have indicated that relationships in these environments are driven by commitment, trust, privacy concerns and stickiness. However, research on the use of Facebook as a relationship marketing building platform has received little attention. Therefore, this paper focuses on the constructs of relationship marketing and how they impact on relationships in the Facebook context. Questionnaires were distributed to a convenience sample of 300 students. The study confirmed that the factors influencing relationships on Facebook were similar to the factors influencing relationships in other online environments. The implications of the results of the study are discussed.

Full Text:



Anderson, E. & Weitz, B. (1992). The use of pledges to build and sustain commitment in distribution

channels. Journal of Marketing Research, 29(1), 18-34.

Bagozzi, R. P. & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of

Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.

Bendapudi, N. & Berry, L. L. (1997). Customers' motivations for maintaining relationships with service

providers. Journal of Retailing, 73(1), 15-37.

Boyd, D. M. & Ellison, N. B. (2008). Social network sites: definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of

Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230.

Brown, M. & Muchira, R. (2004). Investigating the relationship between Internet privacy concerns and online

purchase behavior. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 5(1), 62-70.

Brown, M., Gottlieba, U. & Muchira, R. (2005). Privacy concerns and purchase of travel product

online. In Proceedings of the International Conference of Information and Communication

Technologies in Tourism, Innsbruck, Austria, pp.285-295.

Calder, B. J., Phillips, L. W. & Tybout, A. M. (1981). Designing research for application. Journal of Consumer

Research, 8(2), 197-207.

Cater, B. & Zabkar, V. (2009). Antecedents and consequences of commitment in marketing research services:

The client's perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 38(7), 785-797.

Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A. & LePine, J. A. (2007). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: a meta-analytic

test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of Applied

Psychology, 92(4), 909-927.

Culnan, M. J. & Armstrong, P. K. (1999). Information privacy concerns, procedural fairness, and impersonal

trust: An empirical investigation. Organization Science, 10(1), 104-115.

De Ruyter, K., Moorman, L. & Lemmink, J. (2001). Antecedents of commitment and trust in customer–supplier

relationships in high technology markets. Industrial Marketing Management, 30(3), 271-286.

De Ruyter, K. & Semeijn, J. (2002). Forging buyer-seller relationships for total quality management in

international business: the case of the European cement industry. Total Quality Management, 13(3),


Dwyer, C., Hiltz, S. & Passerini, K. (2007). Trust and privacy concern within social networking sites: A

comparison of Facebook and MySpace. AMCIS 2007 Proceedings, 339.

eMarketer. (2014). Facebook's US Ad Revenues Outpace Users' Average Daily Time Spent on the Site - See

more at: http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Facebooks-US-Ad-Revenues-Outpace-Users-Average-

Daily-Time-Spent-on-Site/1011215#sthash.8tG2miDe.dpuf [Accessed 30 November 2014].

eMarketer. (2014). Facebook's New Focus Changes the Game for Brand Advertisers. /[Online] Available:


Advertisers/1010944#sthash.hkno7hZE.dpuf [Accessed 30 November 2014].

Eastlick, M. A., Lotz, S. L. & Warrington, P. (2006). Understanding online B-to-C relationships: An integrated

model of privacy concerns, trust, and commitment. Journal of Business Research, 59(8), 877-886.

Evans, J. R. & Laskin, R. L. (1994). The relationship marketing process: A conceptualization and

application. Industrial Marketing Management, 23(5), 439-452.

Gefen, D. (2002). Reflections on the dimensions of trust and trustworthiness among online consumers. ACM

Sigmis Database, 33(3), 38-53.

Geyskens, I., Steenkamp, J. B. E., Scheer, L. K. & Kumar, N. (1996). The effects of trust and interdependence on

relationship commitment: A trans-Atlantic study. International Journal of Research in

Marketing, 13(4), 303-317.

Goldie, J. (2006). Virtual Communities and the Social Dimension of Privacy. University of Ottawa Law &

Technology Journal, 3(1), 133-167.

Grönroos, C. (2000). Creating a relationship dialogue: communication, interaction and value. The marketing

Review, 1(1), 5-14.

Gummesson, E. (1994). Making relationship marketing operational. International Journal of Service Industry

Management, 5(5), 5-20.

Gummesson, E. (2002). Relationship marketing in the new economy. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 1(1),


Gundlach, G. T., Achrol, R. S. & Mentzer, J. T. (1995). The structure of commitment in exchange. Journal of

Marketing, 59(1), 78-92.

Harridge-March, S. & Quinton, S. (2009). Virtual snakes and ladders: social networks and the relationship

marketing loyalty ladder. The Marketing Review, 9(2), 171-181.

Hennig-Thurau, T. & Hansen, U. (2000). Relationship marketing—some reflections on the state-of-the-art of

the relational concept. In Relationship Marketing (pp. 3-27). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Hoffman, D. L., Novak, T. P. & Peralta, M. (1999). Building consumer trust online. Communications of the

ACM, 42(4), 80-85.

Hsu, Y. L. (2012). Facebook as international eMarketing strategy of Taiwan hotels. International Journal of

Hospitality Management, 31(3), 972-980.

Hsu, C. L. & Liao, Y. C. (2014). Exploring the linkages between perceived information accessibility and

microblog stickiness: The moderating role of a sense of community. Information &

Management, 51(7), 833-844.

Jayachandran, S., Sharma, S., Kaufman, P. & Raman, P. (2005). The role of relational information processes and

technology use in customer relationship management. Journal of Marketing, 69, 177-192.

Kang, I., Lee, K. C., Lee, S. & Choi, J. (2007). Investigation of online community voluntary behavior using

cognitive map. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(1), 111-126.

Kim, W. G. & Cha, Y. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of relationship quality in hotel

industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 21(4), 321-338.

Kim, Y. H. & Kim, D. J. (2005, January). A study of online transaction self-efficacy, consumer trust, and

uncertainty reduction in electronic commerce transaction. In Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii

International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 170c-170c). IEEE.

Kim, Y. H., Kim, D. J. & Hwang, Y. (2009). Exploring online transaction self-efficacy in trust building in B2C ecommerce.

Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 21(1), 37-59.

Li, D., Browne, G. J. & Wetherbe, J. C. (2006). Why do internet users stick with a specific web site? A

relationship perspective. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 10(4), 105-141.

Liu, C., Marchewka, J. T., Lu, J. & Yu, C. S. (2004). Beyond concern: a privacy–trust–behavioral intention model

of electronic commerce. Information & Management, 42(1), 127-142.

Lwin, M. O. & Williams, J. D. (2003). A model integrating the multidimensional developmental theory of

privacy and theory of planned behavior to examine fabrication of information online. Marketing

Letters, 14(4), 257-272.

Malhotra, N. K., Kim, S. S. & Agarwal, J. (2004). Internet users' information privacy concerns (IUIPC): The

construct, the scale, and a causal model. Information Systems Research, 15(4), 336-355.

Malhotra, N. K. (2010). Marketing research: An applied orientation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

McDonald, R. P. & Ho, M. H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses.

Psychological Methods, 7(1), 64-82.

McKnight, D. H. & Chervany, N. L. (2002). What trust means in e-commerce customer relationships: an

interdisciplinary conceptual typology. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 6, 35-60.

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J. & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and

test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538-551.

Moorman, C., Deshpande, R. & Zaltman, G. (1993). Factors affecting trust in market research relationships.

Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 81-101.

Morgan, R. M. & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. The Journal of

Marketing, 58(3), 20-38.

Mukherjee, A. & Nath, P. (2003). A model of trust in online relationship banking. International Journal of Bank

Marketing, 21(1), 5-15.

Mukherjee, A. & Nath, P. (2007). Role of electronic trust in online retailing. European Journal of

Marketing, 41(9/10), 1173-1202.

Nemzow, M. (1999). Ecommerce stickiness for customer retention. Journal of Internet Banking and

Commerce, 4(1), 1-5.

Nicholas, D., Rowlands, I., Clark, D. & Williams, P. (2011). Google Generation II: web behaviour experiments

with the BBC. Aslib Proceedings, 63(1), 28-45.

Nunnally, J. M. (1978). Psychometric Theory. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Park, N., Song, H. & Lee, K. M. (2014). Social networking sites and other media use, acculturation stress, and

psychological well-being among East Asian college students in the United States. Computers in Human

Behavior, 36, 138-146.

Peterson, R. A. (2001). On the use of college students in social science research: Insights from a second-order

meta-analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(3), 450-461.

Reinartz, W. J. & Kumar, V. (2003). The impact of customer relationship characteristics on profitable lifetime

duration. Journal of Marketing, 67(1), 77-99.

Roblyer, M. D., McDaniel, M., Webb, M., Herman, J. & Witty, J. V. (2010). Findings on Facebook in higher

education: A comparison of college faculty and student uses and perceptions of social networking

sites. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(3), 134-140.

Rusbult, C. E., Martz, J. M. & Agnew, C. R. (1998). The investment model scale: Measuring commitment level,

satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Personal Relationships, 5(4), 357-387.

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological wellbeing.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069-1081.

Selnes, F. (1998). Antecedents and consequences of trust and satisfaction in buyer-seller

relationships. European journal of Marketing, 32(3/4), 305-322.

Sharma, A., Tzokas, N., Saren, M. & Kyziridis, P. (1999). Antecedents and consequences of relationship

marketing: Insights from business service salespeople. Industrial Marketing Management, 28(6), 601-

Shani, D. & Chalasani, S. (1992). Exploiting Niches Using Relationship Marketing. Journal of Consumer

Marketing, 9(3), 33 - 42.

Sheth, J. N. & Parvatiyar, A. (1995). The evolution of relationship marketing. International Business

Review, 4(4), 397-418.

Shore, L. M. & Wayne, S. J. (1993). Commitment and employee behavior: comparison of affective commitment

and continuance commitment with perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied

Psychology, 78(5), 774-780.

Smith, H. J., Milberg, S. J. & Burke, S. J. (1996). Information privacy: measuring individuals' concerns about

organizational practices. MIS Quarterly, 20(2), 167-196.

Wang, F., Zhang, H., Zang, H. & Ouyang, M. (2005). Purchasing pirated software: an initial examination of

Chinese consumers. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(6), 340-351.

Wang, H., Gu, G., An, S. & Zhou, G. (2014). Understanding Online Consumer Stickiness in E-commerce

Environment: A Relationship Formation Model. International Journal of U-& E-Service, Science &

Technology, 7(3), 151-162.

Wells, W. D. (1993). Discovery-oriented consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(4), 489-504.

Wilson, D. T. (1995). An integrated model of buyer-seller relationships. Journal of the Academy of Marketing

Science, 23(4), 335-345.

Wu, J. J., Chen, Y. H. & Chung, Y. S. (2010). Trust factors influencing virtual community members: A study of

transaction communities. Journal of Business Research, 63(9), 1025-1032.

Xu, J. & Liu, Z. (2010). Study of online stickiness: its antecedents and effect on repurchase intention. In e-

Education, e-Business, e-Management, and e-Learning, 2010. IC4E'10. International Conference on

(pp. 116-120). IEEE.

Yan, L. (2013). The Value of Social Media for Patients: Social Supports, Networking, and Learning in Online

Healthcare Communities (Doctoral dissertation).

Yousafzai, S., Pallister, J. & Foxall, G. (2009). Multi-dimensional role of trust in Internet banking adoption. The

Service Industries Journal, 29(5), 591-605.

Zineldin, M. (2000). Beyond relationship marketing: technological ship marketing. Marketing Intelligence &

Planning, 18(1), 9-23.

Zott, C., Amit, R. & Donlevy, J. (2000). Strategies for value creation in e-commerce: best practice in

Europe. European Management Journal, 18(5), 463-475.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2220-6140