Evidence-Based Practices of Promoting Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education Institutions in Africa

Fawzy Basardien, Chris Friedrich, Michael Twum-Darko

Abstract


This research applies the changing of cognitive mechanisms of University students through Entrepreneurship Education (EE). The study hypothesises that entrepreneurial orientation (achievement orientation, personal control, innovation and self-esteem) improves after completing the entrepreneurship module. The context of this research involves undergraduate commerce students from the University of the Western Cape (UWC) in South Africa. The study involves quantitative research using questionnaires through a longitudinal approach. The research design consists of a pre-test, post-test and post-test after the intervention. The impact of the training intervention was assessed over a 12 month period based on a randomised control design. This study indicates that entrepreneurial orientation was influenced through this Entrepreneurship module. The practical implications of this study emphasises the importance of training approaches that are based on empirical research. The uniqueness of this paper lies in the pedagogy used that allows the effectiveness of assessing a training program.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aiken, L. S. & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Newbury Park:

Sage.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,

(2), 179–211.

Alarape, A. (2008). On the road to institutionalising Entrepreneurship education in Nigerian Universities.

International Journal of Management Education, 7(2).

Alarape, A. A. (1999). Entrepreneurship education: Challenges of Nigerian Universities. Social Science Review,

, 118- 124.

Åsvoll, H. & Jacobsen, P.J. (2012). A Case Study: Action Based Entrepreneurship Education How experience

problems can be overcome and collaboration problems mitigated. Journal of Entrepreneurship

Education, 15, 75-97.

Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44(9), 1175–1184.

Baron, R. A. (2007a). Behavioral and cognitive factors in Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurs as the active

element in new venture creation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1-2), 167–182.

Baron, R. A. (2007b). Entrepreneurship: A process perspective. In J. R. Baum, M. Frese, & R. A. Baron (Eds.),

The Psychology of Entrepreneurship, 19–39. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Barr, S. H., Baker, T. & Markham, S. K. (2009). Bridging the valley of death: Lessons learned from 14 years of

commercialization of technology education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8(3),

–388.

Baum, J. R. & Locke, E. A. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to

subsequent venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 587–598.

Bird, B. & Schjoedt, L. (2009). Entrepreneurial Behavior: Its Nature, Scope, Recent Research, and Agenda for

Future Research. In A. L. Carsrud, & M. Brännback (Eds.), Understanding the Entrepreneurial Mind:

Opening the Black Box: New York, NY: Springer, 327-358.

Bischoff, K. M. & Dlugosch, T. J. (2013). Action and Action-Regulation in Entrepreneurship: Evaluating a

Student Training for Promoting Entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Learning & Education

(in press).

Blenker, P., Dreisler, P., Færgemann, H. M. & Kjeldsen, J. (2004). Entrepreneurship education and University

context. Konferencepapir IntEnt 2004, Napoli. Retrieved September 29, 2006, from

http://www.hha.dk/org/cmsdocs/resme/intent04.doc

Boyd, N. G. & Vozikis, G. S. (1994). The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial

intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(4), 63–77.

Brandstatter, V., Heimbeck, D., Malzacher, J. T. & Frese, M. (2003). Goals need implementation intentions: The

model of action phases tested in the applied setting of continuing education. European Journal of

Work and Organizational Psychology, 12(1), 37–59.

Braukmann, U. (2000). Fostering of entrepreneurships by Universities – Outlines of an entrepreneurship

education within the scope of the ‘Bizeps Project’. Proceedings of the 2000 USASBE Annual National

Conference: The entrepreneurial millennium, San Antonio, Texas, February 16 – 19.

Brijlal, P. (2011). Entrepreneurial perceptions and knowledge: A survey of final year University students.

African Journal of Business Management, 5(3), 818-825.

Brockhaus, R. (1976). Locus of control and risk-taking propensity as entrepreneurial characteristics.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Washington University, St. Louis.

Cassar, G. (2010). Are individuals entering self-employment overly optimistic? An empirical test of plans and

projections on nascent entrepreneur expectations. Strategic Management Journal, 31(8), 822–840.

Crandall, R. (1973). Measurement of self-esteem and related constructs. In: J. Robinson & P. Shaver (Eds),

Measurement of social psychological attitudes. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Crotty, M. (2003). The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspectives in the Research Process,

London: Sage Publications, 3rd edition, 10.

Davidsson, P. & Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal

of Business Venturing, 18(3), 301–331.

Edelman, L. F. & Yli-Renko, H. (2010). The impact of environment and entrepreneurial perceptions on

venture-creation efforts: Bridging the discovery and creation views of Entrepreneurship.

Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(5), 833–856.

Edelman, L. F., Manolova, T. S. & Brush, C. G. (2008). Entrepreneurship education: Correspondence between

practices of nascent entrepreneurs and textbook prescriptions for success. Academy of Management

Learning & Education, 7(1), 56–70.

Fiet, J. O. (2001). The pedagogical side of Entrepreneurship theory. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(2), 101–

Frese, M. (2009). Toward a psychology of Entrepreneurship - An action theory perspective. Foundations and

Trends in Entrepreneurship, 5(6), 437–496.

Frese, M., Krauss, S. I., Keith, N., Escher, S., Grabarkiewicz, R., Luneng, S. T. & Friedrich, C. (2007). Business

owners’ action planning and its relationship to business success in three African countries. Journal of

Applied Psychology, 92(6), 1481–1498.

Frese, M., Bausch, A., Schmidt, P., Rauch, A. & Kabst, R. (2012). Evidence-based Entrepreneurship: Cumulative

Science, Action Principles, and Bridging the Gap Between Science and Practice. Foundations and

Trends in Entrepreneurship, 8(1), 1-62

Frese, M., van Gelderen, M. & Ombach, M. (2000). How to plan as a small scale business owner: Psychological

process characteristics of action strategies and success. Journal of Small Business Management, 38(2),

–18.

Frese, M. & Zapf, D. (1994). Action as the core of work psychology: A German approach. In H. C. Triandis, M. D.

Dunnette, & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4, 271–340.

Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Friedrich, C. & Visser, K. 2006. Building Human Capital in Difficult Environments: An Empirical Study of

Entrepreneurship Education, Self-esteem, and Achievement in South Africa, in Craig S. Galbraith, Curt

H. Stiles (ed.) Developmental Entrepreneurship: Adversity, Risk, and Isolation (International

Research in the Business Disciplines, 5) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 355 – 378.

Gielniek, M. M., Frese, M., Kahara-Kawuki, A., Katono, I. W., Kyejjusa, S., Ngoma, M., Munene, J., Namatovu-

Dawa, R., Nansubuga, F., Orobia, L., Sejjaaka, S., Sserwanga, A., Walter, T., Bischoff, K. M. & Dlugosch, T.

J. Gielnik, M. M., Frese, M., Kahara-Kawuki, A., Wasswa Katono, I., Kyejjusa, S., Munene, J., Muhammed,

N., Namatovu-Dawa, R., Nansubuga, F., Orobia, L., Oyugi, J., Sejjaaka, S., Sserwanga, A., Walter,T.

(2015). Action and Action-Regulation in Entrepreneurship: Evaluating a Student Training for

Promoting Entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(1), 69–94.

Gist, M. E. & Mitchell, T. R. (1992). Self-efficacy: A theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleability.

Academy of Management Review, 17(2), 183–211.

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist,

(7), 493–503.

Gorman, G., Hanlon, D. & King, W. (1997). Some research perspectives on Entrepreneurship education,

enterprise education and education for small business management: a ten-year literature review.

International Small Business Journal, 15(3), 56–77.

Guba & Lincolin. (1989). Fourth Generation Evaluation. London: SAGE Publications, 83.

Hermans, H. (1970). A questionnaire measure of achievement motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology,

(4), 353 – 363.

Green, P., Katz, J. & Johannison, B. (2004). Entrepreneurship education. Academy of Management Learning and

Education, 3(3), 238-241.

Hills, G. E., Lumpkin, G. T. & Singh, R. P. (1997). Opportunity recognition: perceptions and behaviors of

entrepreneurs. In P. D. Reynolds, W. D. Bygrave, N. M. Carter, P. Davidsson, W. B. Gartner, C. M.

Mason, & P. P. McDougall (Eds.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 168–182. Babson Park, MA:

Babson College.

Hisrich, R. D., Peters, R. P. & Shepherd, D. A. (2002). Entrepreneurship. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Honig, B. (2004). Entrepreneurship education: Toward a model of contingency-based business planning.

Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(3), 258–273.

Honig, B. & Karlsson, T. (2004). Institutional forces and the written business plan. Journal of Management,

(1), 29–48.

Hornaday, J. & Aboud, J. (1971). Characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. Personnel psychology, 24(2), 141

– 153.

Jenvey, N. (2015). Calls for entrepreneurship education in universities. Paper presented at the third Annual

International Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship held in Durban, South Africa.

Retrieved from http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=2015032413133496.

Kalitanyi, V. & Visser, K. (2010). African immigrants in South Africa: job takers or job creators? SAJEMS, 4,

-390.

Kiggundu, M. (2002). Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa: What is known and what needs to be

done. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7(3), 239-257.

Kirton, M. (1976). Adaptors and innovators: A description and measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61(5),

– 629.

Kirton, M. (1978). Have adaptors and innovators equal levels of creativity. Psychological Reports, 42, 695 –

Koellinger, P., Minniti, M. & Schade, C. (2007). I think I can, I think I can: Overconfidence and entrepreneurial

behavior. Journal of Economic Psychology, 28(4), 502–527.

Kolvereid, L. & Isaksen, E. (2006). New business start-up and subsequent entry into self-employment. Journal

of Business Venturing, 21(6), 866–885.

Krauss, S. I., Frese, M., Friedrich, C. & Unger, J. M. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation: A psychological model

of success among southern African small business owners. European Journal of Work and

Organizational Psychology, 14(3), 315–344.

Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D. & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of

Business Venturing, 15(5-6), 411–432.

Latham, G. P., Saari, L. M., Pursell, E. D. & Campion, M. A. (1980). The situational interview. Journal of Applied

Psychology, 65(4), 422–427.

Levenson, H. (1981). Differentiating among internality, powerful others and chance. In: H. Lefcourt (Ed.),

Research with the locus of control construct: Assessment methods, Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press.

Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2002). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice-Hall.

Martin, B., McNally, J. J. & Kay, M. J. (2013). Examining the formation of human capital in Entrepreneurship: A

meta-analysis of Entrepreneurship education outcomes. Journal of Business Venturing, 28, 211–224.

McClelland, D. (1965). Need for achievement and Entrepreneurship: A longitudinal study. Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 1(4), 389 – 392.

McClelland, D. (1986). Characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. Journal of Creative Behaviour, 21(3), 219 –

McKelvie, A., Haynie, J. M. & Gustavsson, V. (2011). Unpacking the uncertainty construct: Implications for

entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(3), 273–292.

McMullen, J. S. & Shepherd, D. A. (2006). Entrepreneurial action and the role of uncertainty in the theory of

the entrepreneur. Academy of Management Review, 31(1), 132–152.

Mentoor, E. & Friedrich, C. (2007). Is entrepreneurial education at South African Universities successful? An

empirical example. Industry and Higher Education, 21, 231–232.

Miller, G. A., Galanter, E. & Pribram, K. H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. London: Holt.

Mitchell, J. R. & Shepherd, D. A. (2010). To thine own self be true: Images of self, images of opportunity, and

entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(1), 138–154.

Mumford, M. D., Schultz, R. A. & Van Doorn, J. R. (2001). Performance in planning: Processes, requirements,

and errors. Review of General Psychology, 5(3), 213–240.

Neck, H. M. & Greene, P. G. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: Known worlds and new frontiers. Journal of

Small Business Management, 49(1), 55–70.

Nicolaides, A. (2011). Entrepreneurship- the role of Higher Education in South Africa. Educational Research,

(4)1043-1050.

Oosterbeek, H., van Praag, C. M. & Ijsselstein, A. (2010). The impact of Entrepreneurship education on

Entrepreneurship skills and motivation. European Economic Review, 54(3), 442–454.

Preacher, K. J. & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing

indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.

Pittaway, L. & Cope, J. (2007). Entrepreneurship education: A systematic review of the evidence. International

Small Business Journal, 25(5), 479–510.

Rasmussen, E. A. & Sorheim, R. (2006). Action-based Entrepreneurship education. Journal of Technovation, 26,

–194.

Roberts, E. (1991). Entrepreneurs in high technology. London: Oxford University Press.

Robinson, P., Stimpson, D. V., Huefner, J. & Hunt, H. (1991). Entrepreneurial research on student subjects does

not generalise to real world entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 29, 42 – 50.

Ronstadt, R. (1987). The educated entrepreneurs. A new era of entrepreneurial education is beginning.

American Journal of Small Business, 11(4), 37 – 53.

Ronstadt, R. (1990). The educated entrepreneurs: A new era of entrepreneurial education is beginning. In C.

A. Kent (Ed.), Entrepreneurship education: Current developments, future directions (pp. 69-88). New

York: Quorum Books.

Rotter, J. (1990). Internal versus external control of reinforcement. American Psychologist, 45, 489 – 493.

Rotter, J. (1966). Generalised expectations for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological

monographs. General and Applied, 80(1), 1 – 27.

Rwigema, R. & Venter. R. (2004). Advanced Entrepreneurship, Oxford University Press, Cape Town.

Shane, S. (2000). Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organization Science,

(4), 448–469.

Shane, S., Locke, E. A. & Collins, C. J. (2012). Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management

Review, 13(2), 257-279.

Singer, S., Amoros, J. E. & Moska, D. (2014). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2014 Global Report. Retrieved

Mar 2015, http://gemconsortium.org/report

Siteman, A. (2004). Can entrepreneurship be taught? Reflections on the MIT experience. Online,

http://www.esmas.com/emprendedores/startups/eresemprendedor/401446.html. February 20,

Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S. & Al-Laham, A. (2007). Do Entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial

intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources.

Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4), 566–591.

Spencer, L., McClelland, D. & Spencer, S. (1992). Competency assessment methods. Boston: Hay-McBer

Research Press.

Statistics South Africa. (2015). Quarterly Labour Force Survey. Pretoria

Streeter, D. H., Jaquette, J. P., Jr. & Hovis, K. (2002). University-wide Entrepreneurship education: Alternative

models and current trends (Working paper 2002-02). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, Department of

Applied Economics and Management. Retrieved October 2, 2006, from

http://epe.cornell.edu/downloads/WP_2002_final.PDF

Timmons, J. & Spinelli, S. (2004). New venture creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st century. Boston: Irwin

McGraw-Hill.

Townsend, D. M., Busenitz, L. W. & Arthurs, J. D. (2010). To start or not to start: Outcome and ability

expectations in the decision to start a new venture. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(2), 192–202.

Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P. & Wright, M. (2008). Opportunity identification and pursuit: Does an

entrepreneur’s human capital matter? Small Business Economics, 30(2), 153–173.

Unger, J. M., Rauch, A., Frese, M. & Rosenbusch, N. (2009). Human capital and entrepreneurial success: A

meta-analytical review. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(3), 341-358.

Urban, B. & Congo, K. (2015). The relevance of human capital to firm performance: A focus on the retail

industry in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Independent Research Journal in Management

Sciences, 15(1).

Van Wyk, R., Boschoff, A. B. & Owen, J. H. (1999). Construct validity of psychometric instruments developed in

the United States when applied to professional people in South Africa. South African Journal of

Economic and Management Sciences, SS1 (Special Issue), 1 – 72.

Wickham, P. (2004). Strategic Entrepreneurship. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2220-6140