Structural Equation Modelling applied to proposed Statistics Attitudes-Outcomes Model: A case of a University in South Africa
AbstractThe purpose of the study is to investigate the structural relationships among constructs of the statistics attitudes-outcomes model (SA-OM) using exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) methodology. The sample consists of 583 first-year undergraduate students enrolled for statistics courses at the university in South Africa. ESEM reveal that all but two of the nine constructs have well to excellent reliability. To enhance the model, we deleted the eight variables. All other indicators have a significant loading into a construct. Congruency of the SA-OM and expectancy value model (EVM) is noted. The SRMR for all modified models are less than 0.10 suggesting that all these models have acceptable fit. Moreover, all the modified models have RMSE values within the ranges of adequate fit. On the contrary, all the models have unacceptable fit according to PCF, CFI, AGFI and PGFI statistics, i.e. according to all parsimony fit indices except the RMSE. The results also reveal that all incremental fit indices but the BBNFI approve the modified models as acceptable since most of these indices are almost equal to a cut-off point of 0.9. However, BBNNI disapprove the ML3 and ML5 models as being acceptable. A host of inconsistencies in fit indices are noted.
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