Cultural Diversity and its Influence on the Attitudes of Africans and Indians toward Marketing Communication: A South African Perspective
Abstract: Culture has been reported to be one of the major factors influencing attitudes toward marketing communication. However, identification across prevailing cultural dimensions could have unique implications for attitudes toward marketing communication. This paper examines how African and Indian cultural values may or may not influence attitudes toward marketing communication. It explores how Africans converge with or diverge from Indians with regards to culturally sensitive attitudes toward marketing communication, based on a Marketing Communication-Specific Cultural Values (MCSCV) model adapted from the individualism-collectivism constructs. Attitudes toward marketing were measured based on the advertising scale of the Index of Consumer Sentiment toward Marketing (ICSM) practices. Data generated for this study were based on responses provided by 283 and 92 African and Indian shoppers at the main shopping malls in the most predominant African and Indian townships in Durban, South Africa viz. Umlazi and Chatsworth, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CATPCA) were conducted on the dataset. Findings revealed that both races displayed more individualistic than collectivistic tendencies toward marketing communication, but Africans exhibited more collectivistic tendencies than their Indian counterparts. In addition, respondents’ individualistic tendencies have a significant influence on attitudes toward marketing communication which showed that consumers’ indigenous cultural disposition play a moderating role on attitudes toward marketing communication. This study builds on the marketing literature by validating the implications of cultural diversity for marketing communication. The study emphasizes how the interplay between target markets’ underlying cultural dispositions and cultural values held toward marketing communication, influence the consistency or inconsistency in consumers’ attitudes toward marketing communication.
Keywords: Culture, Individualism, Collectivism, Consumer behaviour, Advertising
Bearden, W. O., Netemeyer, R. G. & Haws, K. L. (2011). Handbook of marketing scales: multi-item measures for marketing and consumer behavior research. (3rd ed.), California: SAGE.
Bhaktawar, N. & Burger, D. (2010). Pocket guide to South Africa (8th ed.), Pretoria: GCIS.
Blythe, J. (2008). Consumer behaviour, London: Thomson learning.
Brittany, R. L. D. & Ronald, J. F. (2011). Missing the mark: advertising avoidance and distractor devaluation. Journal of advertising, 40(2), 51-62.
Broodryk, J. (2008). Ubuntu African life coping skills: theory and practice. Recreating linkages between theory and praxis in educational leadership, 26 – 27 October. http://www.topkinisis.com
Bulmer, S. & Buchanan-Oliver, M. (2010). Experiences of brands and national identities. Australian marketing journal, 18,199-205.
Burgess, S., Harris, M. & Mattes, R. (2002). SA Tribes: who we are, how we live and what we want from life in the new South Africa. Claremont: David Philip publishers.
Chaharsoughi, S. A. & Yasory, T. H. (2012). Effect of sales promotion on consumer behaviour based on culture. African journal of business management, 6(1), 98-102.
Chan, A. M. (2010). The importance of understanding levels issues in cross-cultural marketing research. International review of business research papers, 6(1), 18-29.
deMooij, M. (2011). Consumer behaviour and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising (2nd ed.), California: SAGE.
deMooij, M. & Hofstede, G. (2011). Cross cultural consumer behaviour: A review of research findings. Journal of international consumer behaviour, 23, 181-192.
Du Plessis, P. J. & Rousseau, G. G. (2007). Buyer behaviour (3rd ed.), New York: Oxford University Press.
Furrer, O., Shaw-Ching Liu, B. & Sudharshan, D. (2000). The relationships between culture and service quality perceptions: Basis for cross-cultural market segmentation and resource allocation. Journal of service research, 2(4), 355-371.
Gaski, J. F. & Etzel, M. J. (1986). The index of consumer sentiment toward marketing. The journal of marketing, 7, 1-8.
Ghemawat, P. & Reiche, S. (2011). National cultural differences and multinational business. Globalization note series, 1-15.
Hawkins, D., I. and Mothersbaugh D., L. (2010). Consumer behavior: Building marketing strategy (11th ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede, G. & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (2nded.), New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J. & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (3rd ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill.
Jandt F. E. (2013). An introduction to intercultural communication: Identities in a global community (7th ed.), California: SAGE.
Kalliny, M., Saran, A., Ghanem, S. & Fisher, C. (2011). Cultural differences and similarities in television commercials in the Arab world and the United States. Journal of global marketing, 24(1), 41-57
Kopalle, P. K., Lehmann, D. R. & Farley, J. U. (2010). Consumer expectations and culture: The effect of belief in Karma in India. Journal of consumer research, 37(2), 251-263.
Morimoto, M. (2012). The influence of acculturation and in-group bias on source credibility: The case of Asian American female consumers. Journal of promotion management, 18(2), 254-274.
Morling, B. & Lamoreaux, M. (2008). Measuring culture outside the head: A meta- analysis of individualism-collectivism in cultural products. Personality and social psychology review, 12(3)199-221.
Mufane, P. (2003). African culture and managerial behaviour: Clarifying the connections. South African journal of business management, 34(3), 17-28.
Ndhlovu, T. P. (2011). Corporate social responsibility and corporate social investment in South Africa: The South African Case. Journal of African business, 12, 72-92.
Okoro, E. (2012). Cross-cultural etiquette and communication in global business: Toward a strategic framework for managing corporate expansion. International journal of business and management, 7(16), 130-138.
Oyedele, A. & Minor, M. S. (2012). Consumer culture plots in television advertising from Nigeria and South Africa. Journal of advertising, 41(1), 91-107.
Oyserman, D. (2011). Culture as situated cognition: cultural mindsets, cultural fluency and meaning making. European review of social psychology, 22, 164-214.
Prendergast, G., Cheung, W. & West, D. (2010). Antecedents to advertising avoidance in China. Journal of current issues and research in advertising, 32(2), 87-100.
Quester, P. G., Pettigrew, S. & Hawkins, D. (2011). Consumer behaviour: Implications for marketing strategy (6th ed.), North Ryde: McGraw-Hill.
Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E. & McDaniel, E. R. (2010). Communication between cultures (7th ed.), Boston: Wadsworth.
Schiffman, L. G. & Wisenblit, J. (2015). Consumer behaviour. (11th ed.), Essex: Pearson.
Schwaiger, M. & Sarstedt, M. (2011). Corporate branding in a turbulent environment. Journal of brand management, 19, 179-181.
Sen, S., Du, S. & Bhattacharya, C. (2016). Corporate social responsibility: A consumer psychology perspective. Current Opinion in Psychology, 10, 70-75.
Shulruf, B., Hattie, J. & Dixon, R. (2011). Intertwinement of individualist and collectivist attributes and response sets. Journal of social, evolutionary and cultural psychology, 5(1), 51-65.
Statistics South Africa. (2015). Mid-year population estimates. www.statssa.gov.za.
Soontiens, W. & De Jager, J. W. (2008). South African values: A reflection on its ‘Western’ base. African journal of business management, 2(12), 222-229.
Solomon, M. R. (2013). Consumer behavior: buying, having, and being (10th ed.), Essex: Pearson.
Theron, L. C. & Theron, A. M. C. (2010). A critical review of studies of South African youth resilience, 1990-2008. South African journal of science, 106(7/8), 1-8.
Usunier, J. C. & Lee, J. A. (2013). Marketing across cultures (6th ed.), Harlow: Pearson.
Uskul, A. K. & Oyserman, D. (2010). When messages fit salient cultural-frame, messages fell more persuasive. Journal of psychology and health, 25(3), 321-337.
Vaheed G., Deshai, A. & Waetjen T. (2010). Many lives: 150 years of being Indian in South Africa. Pietermaritzburg: Heather Hannaway.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Author (s) should affirm that the material has not been published previously. It has not been submitted and it is not under consideration by any other journal. At the same time author (s) need to execute a publication permission agreement to assume the responsibility of the submitted content and any omissions and errors therein. After submission of revised paper in the light of suggestions of the reviewers editorial team at IFRD edits and formats manuscripts to bring uniformity and standardization in published material.
This work will be licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) and under condition of the license, users are free to read, copy, remix, transform, redistribute, download, print, search or link to the full texts of articles and even build upon their work as long as they credit the author for the original work. Moreover, as per journal policy author (s) hold and retain copyrights without any restrictions.