Analysing Biographical Differences on Employees’ Perception of Safety Control Measures with Special Emphasis on the Cost Thereof at a Colliery
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to determine whether biographical differences influence employees’ perception on safety control measures and the cost thereof. A quantitative research approach was followed for which data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire from 151 employees at a colliery in South Africa. Exploratory factor analysis was used to reduce the employees’ perceptions into nine factors. This was followed by an analysis of means using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests to determine differences between perceptions of these factors and the biographical groupings of the employees. Five biographical variables were included, namely (i) years of experience, (ii) English proficiency, (iii) qualification, (iv) gender, and (v) designation. Within a meta-theoretical conceptual scope, a cross-sectional analysis revealed the following statistically significant perception differences: Firstly, from a biographical variable view, English proficiency groupings differ significantly among six of the nine factors. Secondly, from a factor classification view, both direct and indirect cost of work accidents/injuries and perceptions in relation to direct and indirect cost of an unsafe work environment differ significantly in three biographical variables, namely years of experience, English proficiency and qualification. To be more specific, the most experienced group (21+ years’ of experience), the poor/fair, and even to a lesser extent, the good English proficiency groups and the group with no tertiary training should be educated especially about the effect that work accidents, injuries and an unsafe work environment have on the direct and indirect costs of the colliery. The study recommend that the employees with higher qualifications, excellent English proficiency as well as those with relatively fewer years of experience should do higher risk jobs as they are more receptive to safety rules and procedures.
Keywords: Biographical factors, colliery, mine, production costs, safety controls
Brody, B., Letourneau, Y. & Poirier, A. (1990). An indirect cost theory of work accident prevention. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 14(13), 255-270.
Chamber of Mines. (2015). Annual report. [Online] Available at: http://www.chamberofmines.org.za/industry-new/publications/annual-reports
Choudhry, R. M. & Fang, D. (2008). Why operatives engage in unsafe work behavior: Investigating factors on construction sites. Safety Science, 46, 566-584.
Cloete, M. & Marimuthu, F. (2015). Basic accounting for non-accountants. (1sted). Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
Clow, K. E. & James, K. E. (2014). Essentials of marketing research. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.
Collins English Dictionary. (2012). Complete and unabridged. Digital edition. William Collins sons. Dictionar_com.mht.
Conaway, O. B. (1972). Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. The Government Regulator, 400, 55-102.
Cox, S. J. & Cheyne, A. J. T. (2000).Assessing safety culture in offshore environments. Safety Science, 34, 111-129.
DMR (Department of Mineral Resources). (2013). Annual report. [Online] Available at: http://www.gov.za/sites/files/Department_of_Mineral_Resources_Annual _Report.pdf
DMR (Department of Mineral Resources). (2014/15).Annual report. [Online] Available at: http://www.gov.za/publications/annual-report-2014/15/0.html
Dimirkesen, S. & Arditi, D. (2015). Construction safety personnel’s perceptions of safety training practices. International Journal of Project Management, 2, 1-10.
Donald, I. & Canter, D. (1993). Psychological factors and the accident plateau. Health and Safety Information Bulletin, 18, 77-125.
Donald, F., Donald, C. & Thatcher, A. (2015). Work exposure and vigilance decrements in closed circuit television surveillance. Applied Ergonomics, 47, 220-228.
English, D. & Branaghan, R. J. (2012).An empirical derived taxonomy of pilot violation behavior. Safety Science, 50(2), 199-209.
Fernandes-Muniz, B., Montes-Peon, J. M. & Vezques-Ordas, C. J. (2009).Relation between occupational safety management and firm performance. Safety Science, 47, 980-991.
Field, A., Miles, J. & Field, Z. (2013). Discovering statistics using R, London: Sage Publications.
Glendon, A. I. & Litherland, D. K. (2001). Safety climate factors, group differences and safety behaviour in road construction. Safety Science, 39, 157-188.
Harvey, J., Erdos, G., Bolam, H., Cox, M. A. A., Kennedy, J. N. P. & Gregory, D.T. (2002). An analysis of safety culture attitudes in a highly regulated environment. Work and Stress, 16(1), 18-36.
Hawking, S. (s.a.) Quotes. [Online] Available at: http
Hecker, S. & Goldenhar, L. (2014). Understanding safety culture and safety climate in construction: Existing evidence and the path forward. Literature Review Summary for Safety Culture/Climate Workshop – June 11-12, 2013, Washington, DC.
Henwood, K. L., Parkhill, K. A. & Pidgeon, N. F. (2008). Science, technology and risk perception: From gender differences to the effects made by gender. Equal Opportunities International, 27, 662-676.
Horngren, C. T., Datar, S. M. & Rajan, M. V. (2015). Cost accounting: A managerial emphasis. London: Pearson.
Inggs, A. (2016). Buried alive: Lily mine disaster and the state of mining in South Africa. [Online] Available at: http://www. don’tparty.co.za/read/lily-mine-disaster-south-africa/
Kecojevic, V., Komljenovic, D., Groves, W. & Radomsky, M. (2007). An analysis of equipment-related fatal accidents in U.S. mining operations: 1995-2005. Safety Science, 45, 864-874.
Lanoie, P. & Trotter, L. (1998). Costs and benefits of preventing workplace accidents: Going from a mechanical to a manual handling system. Journal of Safety Research, 29(2), 65-75.
Laurence, D. (2005). Safety rules and regulations on mine sites – The problem and a solution. Journal of Safety Research, 36, 39-50.
Lu, C. & Tsai, C. (2008).The effects of safety climate on vessel accidents in the container shipping context. Accidents Analysis and Prevention, 40, 594-601.
Maree, K. & Pietersen, J. (2015).The quantitative research process. (In Maree, K., ed. First steps in research. Pretoria: Van Schaik. p. 145-153).
Masia, U. (2010). The relationship of work stress and job insecurity with workplace safety compliance, job satisfaction and commitment in a mine. Unpublished Masters’ Dissertation. North-West University.
Mason, S., Lawton, B., Travers, V., Rycraft, H., Acroyd, P. & Collier, S. (1995). Improving compliance with safety procedures – Reducing industrial violations. [Online] Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/humanfactors/topics/improvecompliance.pdf
Mikulecky, N. D. L. (2011). Immigrants, English, and the Workplace. Journal of Workplace Learning, 3(3), 209-223.
Mokoena, M. C. & Oberholzer, M. (2015). Employees’ perceptions of safety control mechanisms and production cost at a mine. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 13(4), 70-78.
Naidoo, P. & Maseko, J. (2012). Organisational support for retirement planning among South African professional soccer players. African Journal of Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, December (Supplement 2), 109-118.
Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J., Gerhart, B. & Wright, P. (2014). Fundamentals of human resources management: Gaining a competitive advantage. New York: McGraw-Hill.
O’Toole, M. (2002). The relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety and organisational culture. Journal of Safety Research, 33, 231-243.
Paul, P. S. & Maiti, J. (2007). The role of behavioural factors on safety management in underground mines. Safety Science, 45, 449-471.
RSA (Republic of South Africa). (1996). Mine Health and Safety Act No. 29 of 1996. Government Gazette, 17242, 2-80, 14 June. [Online] Available at: http://www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=70869
Sari, M., Selcuk, A. S., Karpuz, C., Sebnem, H. & Duzgun, B. (2009). Stochastic modelling of accident risks associated with underground coal mine in Turkey. Safety Science, 47, 78-87.
Sevim, K. D. & Gedik, T. (2010). A research on occupational safety in forest products industry in Turkey. African Journal of Business Management, 4(7), 1423-1430.
Smit, W., Stanz, K. & Bussin, M. (2015). Retention preferences and the relationship between total rewards, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(1), 13-pages.
Son, K. S., Melchers, R. E. & Kal, W. M. (2000). An analysis of safety control effectiveness. Reliability Engineering System Safety, 68, 187-194.
South AfricaInfo. (2015). The languages of South Africa. [Online] Available at: http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/language.htm#.WBw4LWdf3IU
Statistics South Africa. (2011). Census: Census in brief. Report No 03-04-41. [Online] Available at: http://www.statssa.gov.za/census/census_2011/census_products/Census_2011_Census_in_brief.pdf
Stevens, C. A. (2010). Selection and settlement of citizens: English language proficiency among immigrant groups in Australia. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 20(2),107-133.
Teo, E. A. & Feng, Y. (2011). The indirect effect of investment on safety performance for building projects. Architectural Science Review, 54(1), 65-80.
Thwala, N. (2008). The Mining Sector in South Africa and the Search for a Workplace Language: Is Fanakalo still relevant in South Africa. [Online] Available at: http://www.witslanguageschool.com/NewsRoom/ArticleView/tabid/180/ArticleId/1/The-Mining-Sector-in-South-Africa-and-the-Search-for-a-Workplace-Language.aspx
Trajkovski, S. & Loosemore, M. (2006). Safety implications of low-English proficiency among immigrant construction site operatives. International Journal of Project Management, 24, 446-452.
Trienekens, J. & Zuurbier, P. (2008).Quality and safety standards in the food industry, development and challenges. International Journal of Production Economics, 3, 107-122.
Ural, S. & Demirkol, S. (2008). Evaluation of occupational safety and health in surface mines. Safety Sciences, 46, 1016-1024.
Van der Walt, F., Thasi, M. E., Jonck, P. & Chipunza, C. (2016).Skills shortages and job satisfaction–insights from the gold-mining sector of South Africa. African Journal of Business and Economic Research, 11(1), 141-181.
Varonen, U. & Mattila, M. (2000).The safety climate and its relationship to safety practices, safety of the work environment and occupational accidents in eight wood-processing companies. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 761-769.
Vinodkumar, M. N. & Bhasi, M. (2009). Safety climate factors and its relationship with accidents and personal attributes in the chemical industry. Safety Science, 47, 659-667.
Williams, B., Onsman, A. & Brown, T. (2010). Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices, Australian Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care, 8(3), 1-13.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Author (s) should affirm that the material has not been published previously. It has not been submitted and it is not under consideration by any other journal. At the same time author (s) need to execute a publication permission agreement to assume the responsibility of the submitted content and any omissions and errors therein. After submission of revised paper in the light of suggestions of the reviewers editorial team at IFRD edits and formats manuscripts to bring uniformity and standardization in published material.
This work will be licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) and under condition of the license, users are free to read, copy, remix, transform, redistribute, download, print, search or link to the full texts of articles and even build upon their work as long as they credit the author for the original work. Moreover, as per journal policy author (s) hold and retain copyrights without any restrictions.