The Influence of Packaging and Brand Equity on Over-The-Counter Herbal Medicines in Kumasi, Ghana

  • Peter Kwasi Oppong University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban
  • Maxwell A Phiri University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban


In today`s competitive business environment, packaging and brand equity provide a competitive advantage to a firm which may increase and maintain its market share. However, the role of packaging in supporting the brand equity is relatively new in the over-the-counter pharmaceutical market and currently, there is a lack of empirical research to uncover its significance in this product segment. This paper seeks to investigate the impact of packaging on brand equity through the mediating effect of dimensions of brand equity in the over-the-counter drug market in Kumasi metropolis. Based on Aaker`s customer-based brand equity model, eight hypotheses were formulated and tested through structural equation modelling. Using systematic sampling, data was collected through survey questionnaires from a sample of 348 consumers who patronize in herbal medicines from herbal stores in Kumasi Metropolis. The study found that packaging significantly contributes to support brand equity of plant medicines through the mediating effect of brand awareness, brand association and brand loyalty. These results indicate that brand managers in the plant medicine industry need to consider packaging as an important brand-building tool in their marketing strategy to enhance brand equity in the over-the-counter pharmaceutical market. This will enh0ance their competitive distinctiveness in the over-the-counter market. 


Download data is not yet available.


Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing on the Value of Brand Name. New York, N.Y. 10020: The Free Press. Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring Brand Equity across Products and Markets. California Management Review, 38(3), 102 – 120. Aaker, D. A. (1992). The Value of Brand Equity. Journal of Business Strategy, 13(4), 27-32. Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(3), 347- 357. Anderson, J. C. & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural Equation Modelling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two- Step Approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411- 423. Atilgan, E., Aksoy, S. & Akinci, S. (2005). Determinants of Brand Equity: A Verification Approach in the Beverage Industry in Turkey. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(3), 237- 248. Asif, M., Abbas, K., Kashif, M., Hussain, S. & Hussain, I. (2015). Impact of Brand Awareness and Loyalty on Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing & Consumer Research, 12, 67-72. Bagozzi, R. P. & Yi, Y. (1988). On the Evaluating Structural Equation Models. Journal of Academy of Marketing Research, 16(1), 074-094. Brodersen, M. & Manolova, P. (2008). Packaging Design as a Brand- Building Tool, Unpublished MSc Thesis submitted to the School of Economics and Management, Lund University, India. Buil, I., Martinez, E. & deChernatony, L. (2013). The Influence of Brand Equity on Consumer Responses. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 30(1), 62-74. Byrne, B. M. (2016). Structural Equation Modelling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications and Programming, (3rd ed.), New York, NY 10017: Francis & Taylor Group. Chaudhary, P. (2011). Role of Packaging on Consumer`s Buying Decisions: A Case Study of Pan I part City. International Journal of Research in Finance & Marketing, 1(8), 76-84. Chaudhuri, A. & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: The Role of Brand Loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 62(2), 81-93. Chen, A. C. H. (2001). Using Free Association to Examine the Relationship between the Characteristics of Brand Association and Brand Equity. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 10(7), 439-457. Christodoulides, G., Cadogan, J. W. & Veloutsou, C. (2015). Customer-Based Brand Equity Measurement: Lessons Learned from International Study. International Marketing Review, 23(3/4), 307-328.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, (4th ed.), California: SAGE Publications Inc. DeLorme, D. E., Hu, J., Reid, L. N. & Ann, S. (2010). The State of Public Research on Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Health Care Marketing, 4(3), 208-231. Dhurup, M., Mafini, C. & Dumasi, T. (2014). The Impact of Packaging, Price and Brand Awareness on Brand Loyalty: Evidence from the Paint Retailing Industry. ActaCommercii, 14(1), 1-9. Dickov, V. (2012). The Aspect of Brands and Marketing Development in Pharmaceutical Industry. Acta MedicaLituanica, 19(2), 93–100. Dlacic, J. & Kezman, E. (2014). Exploring Relationship between Brand Equity and Customer Loyalty on Pharmaceutical Market. Economic& Business Review, 16(2), 121-131. Edward, S. T. W. (2013). The influence of visual packaging design on perceived food product quality value, and brand preference. International Journal of Retail &Distribution Management, 41(10), 805 – 816. Essegbey, G. O., Awuni, S., Essegbey, I. T., Akuffobea, M. & Mica, B. (2014). Country Study on Innovations, Intellectual Property and Informal Economy: Traditional Medicines in Ghana. Farhana, M. (2012). Brand Elements Lead to Brand Equity: Differentiate or Die. Information Management & Business Review, 4(4), 223-233. Farquhar, P. H. (1989). Managing Brand Equity. Marketing Research, 24-33. Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (1), 39-50. Garber, L. L. J., Burke, R. R. & Morgan, J. J. (2000). The Role of Package Colour in Consumer Purchase Consideration and Choice. Marketing Science Institute, Working Paper Series, Report No. 00-104. Gardner, B. B. (1981). The Package Communication. Handbook of Package Design Research, (In Walter Stem ed.), pp. 232-237: Wiley & Sons. Gavin, D. A. (1983). Competing on the Eight Dimensions of Quality. Harvard Business Review, 65, 107-109. GFDA. (2013). Guidelines for Registration of Herbal Medicine Products in Ghana. Gil, R. B., Andres, E. F. & Martinez, E. S. (2007). Family as Source of Customer-Based Brand Equity Journal of Product & Brand Management, 16(3), 188-199. Hair, J. H. Jr., Black, W. C, Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.), New York: Pearson Prentice Hall. Hanzaee, K. H. (2009). Verbal and Pictorial Stimulus of Package Design in Right – Left Languages According to Brain Laterality. Advances in Technology, Education & Development, 308-324. Hess, J. S., Singh, J., Danes, J. & Metcalf, L. E. (2014). Impact of Consumer Product Package Quality on Consumption Satisfaction, Brand Perceptions, Consumer Investment and Behaviour. Journal of Applied Packaging Research, 6(1/ 4), 23-39. Hoeffler, S. & Keller, K. L. (2002). Building Brand Equity through Corporate Societal Marketing. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 21(1), 78-89. Hu, L. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut-off Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling: Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1- 55. Joiner, T. E., Pfaff, J. J. & Acres, J. G. (2002). A Brief Screening Tool for Suicidal Symptoms in Adolescents and Young Adults in General Health Settings: Reliability and Validity data from the Australian National General Practice Youth Suicide Prevention Project. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 471–481. Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualization, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22. Keller, K. L. (2001). Building Customer –Based Brand Equity: A Blueprint for Creating Strong Brands, Marketing Science Institute. Working Paper Series, Report, No. 01-107. Keller, K. L. (2013). Strategic Brand Management: Building Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, (4th ed.), England: Pearson Education Ltd. Keller, K. L. & Lehmann, D. R. (2006). Brands and Branding: Research Findings and Future Priorities. Marketing Science, 25(6), 740-759. Khan, S. (2012). Contribution of Brand Awareness and Brand Characteristics towards Customer Loyalty (A Case of Study of Milk Industry of Peshawar, Pakistan). Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 2(8), 170176. Kim, W. J. & King, K. W. (2009). Product Category Effects on External Search for Prescription and NonPrescription Drugs. Journal of Advertising, 38(1), 5-20.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modelling, (2nd ed.), New York, NY 10012: Guilford Press. Kotler, P. & Keller, K. L. (2009). Marketing Management, (3rd ed.), Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458: Pearson Education, Inc. Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing Management, (11th ed.), Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. Krejcie, R. V. & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610. Lassar, M., Mittal, B. & Sharma, A. (1995). Measuring Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 12(4), 11-19. Mackenzie, N. & Knipe, S. (2006). Research Dilemmas: Paradigms, Methods and Methodology. Issues in Educational Research, 16, 193-205. Malhotra, N. K. & Birks, D. F. (2007). Marketing Research: An Applied Approach, (3rd ed.), England: Pearson Education Limited. Miyazaki, A. D., Grewal, D. & Goodstein, R. C. (2005). The Effect of Multiple Extrinsic Cues on Quality Perceptions: A Matter of Consistency. Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 146-153. Moss, G. D. (2007). Pharmaceuticals: Where is the Brand Logic? Brand Lessons and Strategy. New York: Haworth Press, Inc. Naresh, B. & Reddy, D. B. S. (2016). Impact of Perception on Consumer Purchase Behaviour of Herbal Product in India. Indian Journal of Research, 5(6), 233-235. Nunnally, J. C. (1975). Psychometric Theory: 25 years and Now. Educational Researcher, 4(10), 7-21. Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence Consumer Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63, 33-44. Panchal, S. K., Khan, B. M. & Ramesh, S. (2012). Importance of Brand Loyalty, Brand Awareness and Perceived Quality Parameters in Building Brand Equity in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Medical Marketing, 12(2), 81-92. Pappu, R., Quester, P. Q. & Cooksey, R. W. (2006). Customer-Based Brand Equity and Country-of-Origin Relationships: Some Empirical Evidence. European Journal of Marketing, 40(5/6), 696-717. Peter, J. P. & Olson, J. C. (2008). Consumer Behaviour and Marketing Strategy, (8th ed.), New York, NY 10020: Pearson Education Inc. Pieterse, C. (2013). The Potential of Packaging to Strengthen Brand Equity in Female Apparel Retail Stores. Unpublished MSc dissertation submitted to University of Pretoria, South Africa. Pitta, D. A. & Katsanis, L. P. (1995). Understanding Brand Equity for Successful Brand Extension. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 12(4), 51-64. Sanyal, S. N. & Datta, S. K. (2011). The Effect of Country - of- Origin on Brand Equity: An Empirical Study on Generic Drugs. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 20(2), 130-140. Schuiling, I. & Moss, G. (2004). How different are branding strategies in Pharmaceutical industry versus fast moving consumer goods? Journal of Brand Management, 11(5), 366-380. Silayoi, P. & Speece, M. (2004). Packaging and Purchase Decision: An Exploratory Study on the Impact of Involvement level and Time. British Food Journal, 106(8), 607-628. Smith, P. R. & Taylor, J. (2002). Marketing Communications: An Integrated Approach, (3ed.), London: Pearson Education Inc. Tavakol, M. & Dennick, R. (2011). Making Sense of Cronbach`s Alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53-55. Tong, X. & Hawley, J. M. (2009). Measuring Customer- Based Brand Equity: Empirical Evidence from Sportswear Market in China. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 18(4), 262-271. Underwood, R. L., Klein, N. M. & Burke, R. R. (2001). Packaging Communication: Attentional Effects of Product Imagery. Journal of Product &Brand Management, 10(7), 403 – 422. Underwood, R. L. (2003). The Communicative Power of Product Package: Creating Brand Identity via Lived and Mediated Experience. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 11(1), 62 -76. Underwood, R. L. & Klein, N. M. (2002). Packaging as a Brand Communication: Effects of Product Pictures Consumer Responses to Packaging and Brand. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 10(4), 58-68. Underwood, R. L. & Ozanne, J. L. (1998). Is your Packaging an Effective Communicator? A Normative Framework for Increasing the Communication Competence of Packaging. Journal of Marketing Communications, 4, 207-220. UNDP. (2007). Ghana Human Development Report: Towards a More Inclusive Society.
Wallace, R. (2001). Proving Our Value: Measuring Package Design`s Return on Investment. Design Management Journal, 12(3), 20-27. Washburn, J. H. & Plank, R. E. (2002). Measuring Brand Equity: An Evaluation of a Consumer-Based Brand Equity Scale. Journal of Theory & Practice, 10(1), 46-62. WHO. (1998). Guidelines for Appropriate Use of Herbal Medicines. WHO Regional Publication, Western Pacific Series, 23. WHO. (2002). Guidelines on Packaging Pharmaceutical Products. Technical Report Series, 902. WHO. (2005). National Policy on Traditional Medicine and Regulation of Herbal Medicine. Report of a WHO Global Strategy, Geneva (Available at: http:// www.; Accessed May 12, 2016) WHO. (2011). Traditional Medicines, Global Situation, Issues and Challenges. Yoo, B., Donthu, N. & Lee, S. (2000). An Examination of Selected Marketing Mix Elements and Brand Equity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 195-211. Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means- End Model and Synthesis of Evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52, 2-22.
How to Cite
OPPONG, Peter Kwasi; PHIRI, Maxwell A. The Influence of Packaging and Brand Equity on Over-The-Counter Herbal Medicines in Kumasi, Ghana. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 5, p. 59-72, nov. 2018. ISSN 2220-6140. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 mar. 2019. doi:
Research Paper