The Thick Black and White Ocean among Buddhist Pilgrimage Tourist Operators in Thailand

  • Kittichok Nithisathian Graduate School, Stamford University
  • Lavanchawee Sujarittanonta I-Shou University
  • John C. Walsh School of Management, Shinawatra University,


The White Ocean strategy proposed by Thai scholar Danai Chanchaochai addresses management based on Buddhist philosophy, and emphasizes the society first before looking to oneself. At the same time, there is also the concept of Black Ocean, or Hòuhēixué (厚黑學) which translates to Thick Black Theory, proposed by Li Zongwu (李宗吾). Theoretically, an understanding of both white and black can lead the businessman to adjust his plans for better performance. Therefore, this research examines both Black and White concepts in the context of religious tourism, by collecting business data from tour operators that offer pilgrimage packages to Buddhists. It was found that the Buddhist aspect of the religious tour businesses puts “Blackness” profiteering goals in the background by building a “White” image of charity and donations, thus suggesting that the Black and White co-exists and are inseparable, similar to the middle path or yin-yang balance in nature.


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How to Cite
NITHISATHIAN, Kittichok; SUJARITTANONTA, Lavanchawee; WALSH, John C.. The Thick Black and White Ocean among Buddhist Pilgrimage Tourist Operators in Thailand. Journal of Social and Development Sciences, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 3, p. 11-19, oct. 2016. ISSN 2221-1152. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 sep. 2017.
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